Acute Renal Failure

April 28, 2007

Definitions of acute renal failure range from severe (i.e. requiring dialysis) to slight increases in serum creatinine concentration (e.g. of 44.2 micromol/L). In the absence of a universal definition, acute renal failure is often defined as a significant deterioration in renal function occurring over hours or days. There may be no symptoms or signs, but oliguria (urine volume less than 400 mL/24 h) is common. There is an accumulation of fluid and nitrogenous waste products demonstrated by a rise in blood urea and creatinine.
ARF may result from:
• Poor perfusion of the kidneys (prerenal)
• Intrinsic renal disease
• Urinary tract obstruction (postrenal)

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